What is a Pandemic?

A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease, usually a virus. 

A pandemic happens when a new virus spreads around the world, and most people do not have immunity, that is, their bodies cannot fight it. Viruses that have caused pandemics have normally come from animal influenza viruses. 

It’s just the Flu, isn’t it?

Both seasonal and pandemic influenza can cause infections in all age groups, and most cases the person recovers fully without treatment. However, typical seasonal influenza causes most of its deaths among the elderly while other severe cases occur most commonly in people with a variety of medical conditions.

The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was different. It caused most of its severe or fatal disease in younger people. It also caused many more cases of viral pneumonia than is normally seen with seasonal influenza.

Pandemics affect almost everyone. While many may not get ill, their lives have to change for a while. They may be stopped from going to school or work, for instance, or they might not be able to travel as freely. Food and medicines might be harder to buy easily.

COVID-19 is a disease caused by a specific virus (SAR-CoV-2) and labeled in the press “coronavirus” or “novel coronavirus.”

How bad can it be?

There have been a number of pandemics throughout history, such as smallpox and tuberculosis. Recent pandemics are the 1918 influenza pandemic, also known as Spanish flu, and the 2009 flu pandemic (H1N1). The only current pandemics are HIV/AIDS and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

The earliest recorded pandemic happened during the Peloponnesian War in 430 B.C. in Athens. The disease, was most likely typhoid fever. It weakened the Athenians significantly and was one. of the reasons they were defeated by the Spartans. The symptoms included fever, thirst, bloody throat and tongue, red skin and lesions.

The Black Death in 1350 was responsible for the death of one-third of the world population. It was the second appearance of the bubonic plague, which possibly started in Asia and moved west in caravans. Entering through Sicily in 1347 A.D. when plague sufferers arrived in the port of Messina, it spread quickly throughout Europe. England and France were so affected by the plague that they called a truce to their war.

The Columbian Exchange (1492). When Spanish arrived in the Caribbean, they brought diseases such as smallpox, measles and bubonic plague which were passed to the native populations. As many as 90 percent dying throughout the north and south continents because their bodies could not cope with those viruses.

When Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Hispaniola in 1492, the native Taino people had a population of 60,000. By 1548, the population stood at less than 500.



A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts.


A very contagious viral infection of the respiratory passages. It causes fever, severe aching, and catarrh.


lesion is any damage or abnormal change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma. Lesions occur in plants as well as animals.

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